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Critical Mineral Refineries Ltd

Critical Mineral Refineries “green” base and precious metals refinery in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is a project with the potential to make a significant impact on the global critical minerals market. The refinery's use of hydrometallurgical solutions, its focus on recycling, and its blockchain-based metal certification system will all help to ensure that it is a sustainable and environmentally friendly operation. The project also has the potential to generate significant revenue for investors, and it is well-positioned to take advantage of the growing demand for critical minerals.

Responsible Solutions Applied

Traditional Smelter/Refineries are environmentally challenging, emit SO2 and CO2 gasses, have tailing products that have long term storage risks, and liquids emitted that potentially impact ground water.
The Critical Mineral Refineries solution has:

  • No Smelting Step

  • No Slag Tailings Storage

  • 100% Hydrometallurgical Process

  • Exothermic Reactions – Waste Heat used for Co-Generation

  • 100% Sulphur in liquid form used for leaching of concentrates.

  • Waste Products after Neutralisation include gypsum, iron and silica

  • Waste Liquids after demineralisation will be water

  • 70% less CO2 emitted

  • 85% less power used, excess power into National grid



Less Carbon Emitted
Less Power Consumed

0 %

Environmental Impact Target



Responisbility Achieved

As a leading green base metal refinery, Critical Mineral Refineries Ltd. is committed to enhancing sustainability, integrating innovative processes that reduce the environmental impact. Our eco-friendly policies continue to be at the forefront of our operation, while our state-of-the-art technology helps protect the environment and reduce our carbon footprint. As a company, we are passionate about staying ahead of the curve and using the latest technologies to produce sustainable products that meet the needs of our customers.

Historically, concentrates containing metals sulphides and oxides are first subject to smelting or roasting to drive off the sulphur and reduce the metal into a leachable matte product. This matte product is then leached to recover the metals into solution, prior to refining and electrowinning or precipitation steps. The downside of this process is the production of SO2 gas, which when recovered, is converted to Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4). In many cases, this gas is not recovered and is emitted directly into the atmosphere. Impurities in the concentrate, such as Arsenic and Mercury are also volatilised in the smelter and end up as air pollutants.
Carbon (C) in the form of coal is added as a reductant along with other fluxes to reduce the sulphide minerals first to oxides and then strip the oxygen atoms forming CO2 gas. Solid waste from the smelting process, slag, is stockpiled and contains other contaminants which over time dissolve into the ground water system. The capital cost of a Smelter is high, as is the capital cost of the Acid plant required to capture the SO2 gas.  Electrical power consumed in these processes is expensive.
The Green Critical Mineral Refinery project replaces all this smelting, acid capture and CO2 emission using an Ultra Fine Grind (“UFG”) and Pressure Oxidative Leach (“POX”). 

Industry 01
Base Metals
Specific focus on Ni, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb.
Industry 02
Precious Metals
Specific Focus on Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir
Industry 03
Rare Earth Metals
Specific focus on Permananet Magnet materials
Industry 04
Specific focus on Lithium, Manganese, Graphite
Industry 05
Renewable Energy
Projects to rely on renewable generated energy
Industry 06
Sustainability Planning
Dowstream processing and beneficiation strategies
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